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Custom Headers

⚠️ This feature is currently experimental, make sure you know what you are doing! ⚠️

You can configure custom headers for your site by adding information under the headers key in the Pages configuration file.

Supported Custom Headers

  • Cache-Control


The headers key in [Pages configuration file]/pages/documentation/federalist-json) expects a list of configurations that include a path pattern to match against the paths of individual files in your site and the headers to apply. Ex.

// federalist.json
  "headers": [
      "/*.html": {
        "cache-control": "no-cache"
      "/*": {
        "cache-control": "max-age=60"

In the above example "/*.html" is a path pattern, "cache-control" is a header name, and "no-cache" is a header value.

Path Pattern Matching Rules

Paths are matched in the order in which they are specified, from top to bottom. The headers for the first matching pattern are the only headers applied to the file. Paths should always begin with a "/" and are evaluated from the root of your site, preview url paths are accounted for. The path pattern is evaluated against the actual path and filename, so even if the file "/foo/index.html" is available at the url path "/foo", the pattern must match "/foo/index.html".

We currently support:

  • explicit matching: /index.html
  • wildcard matching: /*, /*.html
  • segment wildcard matching: /:foo/index.html
  • any combination of the above: /:foo/bar/*.html

Explicit Matches

Explicit matches must exactly match the path and filename.

Pattern Path Match
/index.html /index.html
/foo/app.js /foo/app.js
/foo /foo/app.js

Wildcard (*) Matches

The wildcard "*" matches everything including "/". If the "*" is followed by a file extension (Ex. ".html"), then that extension is match against the last extension of the file. The "*" must be the first character in the pattern segment, otherwise it will be treated as a normal character.

Pattern Path Match
/* /index.html
/* /foo/bar/app.js
/*.js /foo/bar/app.js
/*.js /foo/bar/app.html
/*.js /foo/bar/app.abc123.js
/foo/*.js /foo/bar/app.abc123.js
/bar/*.js /foo/bar/app.abc123.js
/f*.js /foo.js
/f*.js /f*.js

Segment Wildcard (:) Matches

The segment wildcard ":foo" (where “foo” can be anything) matches everything except "/". The ":" must be the first character in the pattern segment, otherwise it will be treated as a normal character.

Pattern Path Match
/:foo /index.html
/:bar /foo/index.html
/:bar/*.html /foo/index.html
/f:bar /foo
/f:bar /f:bar


Caching Headers

Adding caching related headers to your site is considered a best practice and can greatly improve your site’s performance. However, if done incorrectly, it is possible to create undesired outcomes such as users not seeing the latest version of your site. Make sure you have a good understanding of how caching works before configuring these headers yourself. See MDN Caching and MDN Cache-Control for more information.


The current default is for all files to be cached for 1 minute:

cache-control: max-age=60

Caching Rules of Thumb

While the configuration that makes sense will depend on your particular site; here are some rules of thumb.

Images, Javascript, and CSS files are good candidates for long-term caching as they can be large AND their urls/filenames are not typically known to the users.

  1. Make sure your build system generates unique filenames for the assets you want to cache for a longer period. For example, the filenames should look something like app-87648563467.js or styles.4574395739578.css.
  2. Configure cache-control to cache for 1 year:
    public, max-age=31536000, immutable

Html files are typically NOT good candidates for long-term caching since the url depends on the actual filename and they are typically smaller files. Given your need for how quickly you want users to get your latest changes, you can either:

  • Configure cache-control to never cache:
    public, max-age=0, must-revalidate
  • Configure cache-control to cache for a short duration (ie 5 minutes):
    public, max-age=300 must-revalidate

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