Running one-off tasks
This table shows a handful of common operations, with the recommended way to perform them.
|What are you trying to do?||Documentation|
|Inspect an app instance to figure out what’s wrong||
|Work with one of your service instances||
|Run a non-interactive process that does a task (such as generating a report, cleaning up garbage, mailing people, processing some data, etc.)||Cloud Foundry Tasks|
|Alternative way to run a non-interactive process that does a task (may be suitable if you want full control over the task app lifecycle)||Deploy an app that performs a task|
Run periodic scheduled tasks
If you’d like to run a periodic scheduled task (similar to a cron job), you should find a cron-like library in the programming language that you’re working with, and implement the task using that library. You may run this as part of an existing application or as a separate application.
If you use continuous deployment, you can use a timer as an input to a task or pipeline that runs a Cloud Foundry Task. You can see a demonstration of this approach using the Travis CI/CD platform here. Note - this same approach can be easily adapted to other common CI/CD platforms like Jenkins, CircleCI and GitHub Actions.
Deploy an app that performs a task
Know before you deploy
This requires a “complete” application manifest (which needs to include all of your service bindings, etc.) — if you don’t have one yet, generate one from an existing app:
cf create-app-manifest <APP_NAME> -p manifest.yml
This will spin up an instance of your environment uploading your local code.
- Note that this may not be in sync with your live app.
- You can leverage this fact to include files that your one-off task might need, such as a data file for importing.
How to deploy
The idea here is that we are going to deploy a new application, but running the one-off task, rather than starting a server or whatever it would normally do. Note that this will not work for any command that is interactive.
Make a copy of your application manifest:
cp manifest.yml task_manifest.yml
- Modify the
- Change the
namevalue to be
task-runner(or something descriptive).
- Remove the following attributes, if present:
commandattribute to be the following:
command: (<your command> && echo SUCCESS || echo FAIL) && sleep infinity
- Change the
- Deploy the one-off app, and view the output. When deploying the one-off tasks, it’s important to disable health-checks and
routes in order to prevent deployment issues during the buildpack phase and
having multiple applications with the same mapped route respectively. For
more information on these options, see the
--health-check-typedocumentation. In order to keep changes to your copied manifest at a minimum, you can provide these configuration options directly on the command-line:
cf push -f task_manifest.yml --health-check-type process --no-route cf logs --recent task-runner
- If needed, use
cf sshto collect any artifacts.
cf delete task-runnerto clean it up. If you don’t do this, your app may automatically run itself again in the future. cloud.gov sometimes automatically restarts apps as part of routine operations (such as platform updates), which can include restarting this kind of app if it hasn’t been deleted.
You can find an example application demonstrating this approach here.